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Scientific Studies


1. Yamaguchi K, Sasano A, Urakami T, Tsuji T, Kondo K: Stimulation of nerve growth factor production by pyrroloquinoline quinone and its derivatives in vitro and in vivo. Biosci Biotchnol Biochem 1993, 57:1231-1233

2. Tsuji T, Yamaguchi K, Urakami T: Nerve growth factor production accelerators and compositions for preventing or treating neuronal degeneration. US Patent 5,846,977: Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company; Sagami Chemical Research Center; 1998.

3. Kim J, Harada R, Kobayashi M, Kobayashi N, Sode K: The inhibitory effect of pyrroloquinoline quinone on the amyloid formation and cytotoxicity of truncated alpha-synuclein. Mol Neurodegener 2010, 5:20

4. Kim J, Kobayashi M, Fukuda M, Ogasawara D, Kobayashi N, Han S, Nakamura C, Inada M, Miyaura C, Ikebukuro K, Sode K: Pyrroloquinoline quinone inhibits the fibrillation of amyloid proteins. Prion 2010, 4:26-31.

5. Nakano M, Suzuki H, Imamura T, Lau A, Lynch B: Genotoxicity of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) disodium salt (BioPQQ). Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, 2013, 67: 189-197.

6. Takatsu H, Owada K, Abe K, Nakano M, Urano S: Effect of Vitamin E on learning and memory deficit in aged rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2009, 55:389-393.

7. Ohwada K, Takeda H, Yamazaki M, Isogai H, Nakano M, Shimomura M, Fukui K, Urano S: Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) prevents cognitive deficit caused by oxidative stress in rats. J Cline Biochem Nutr 2008, 42:29-34.

8. Rucker R, Chowanasdisai W, Nakano M: Potential physiological importance of pyrroloquinoline quinone. Altern Med Rev 2009, 14:268-277.

9. Kempf V, Gopal D, Stalzer W: Synthesis pf pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ). PCT/US2006/010980: CLF Medical Technology Acceleration Program, Inc.; 2006

10. Nakano M, Yamamoto T, Okamura H, Tsuda A, Kowatari Y: Effects of oral supplementation with pyrroloquinoline quinone on stress, fatigue, and sleep. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2:307-324.

21. Saihara K, Kamikubo R, Ikemoto K, Uchida K, Akagawa M: Pyrroloquinoline Quinone, a Redox-Active o‐Quinone, Stimulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis by Activating the SIRT1PGC-1α Signaling Pathway. Biochemistry 2017, 56, 6615−6625

22. Nakano M, Kamimura A, Watanabe F, Kamiya T, Watanabe D, Yamamoto E, Fukagawa M, Hasumi K, Suzuki E: Effects of orally administered pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium salts on dry skin conditions in mice and healthy female subjects. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 2015, 61, 241-246.

23. Nakano M, Kawasaki Y, Suzuki N, Takara T: Effects of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium salt intake on the serum cholesterol levels of healthy Japanese adults. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 2015, 61, 233-240

24. Itoh Y, Hine K, Miura H, Uetake T, Nakano M, Takemura N, Sakatani K: Effect of the antioxidant supplement pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium salt (BioPQQTM) on cognitive functions. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2015, 876, 319-25.

25. Harris CB, Chowanadisai W, Mishchuk DO, Satre MA, Slupsky CM, Rucker RB: Dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) alters indicators of inflammation and mitochondrial-related metabolism in human subjects. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 2013, 24(12):2076-84.


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Nemzer, B., Centner, C., Zdzieblik, D., Fink, B., Hunter, J., Konig, D. (2017). Oxidative stress or redox signaling - new insights into the effects of a proprietary multifunctional botanical dietary supplement. Free Radical Research.

Nemzer, B., Centner, C., Wiessler, N., Pietrzkowski, Z., Hunter, J., Fink, B., Konig, D. (2021). A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Randomized, Longitudinal Study on the Effects of a Plant-based Dietary Supplement on Nitric Oxide and Mitochondrial Metabolic Activity. Journal of Food Research.